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Republish it! But please do not edit the piece. Also make sure that you attribute the author, and mention the article was originally published on Scholars Strategy Network. \u003Cem\u003EBy copying and pasting the markup below you will be adhering to these guidelines.\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n \u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022\/republishing-ssn-articles\u0022\u003EView additional guideline details.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n \u003C\/div\u003E\n\n \u003Ctextarea\u003E\n \u003Cdiv about=\u0022\/brief\/discrimination-obstacle-wellbeing-transgender-americans\u0022 typeof=\u0022sioc:Item foaf:Document\u0022 class=\u0022ds-1col node node-brief view-mode-stealourcontent_node clearfix\u0022\u003E\n \u003Ch2\u003E\n Discrimination as an Obstacle to Wellbeing for Transgender Americans\n \u003C\/h2\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.scholarsstrategynetwork.org\/scholar\/lisa-r-miller\u0022\u003ELisa R. Miller\u003C\/a\u003E, Eckerd College, \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.scholarsstrategynetwork.org\/scholar\/eric-anthony-grollman\u0022\u003EEric Anthony Grollman\u003C\/a\u003E, University of Richmond\n \u003Cp\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EIn April 2015, former Olympian athlete and television star Caitlyn Jenner made history by coming out as a transgender person in a tearful interview with \u003Cem\u003E20\/20\u003C\/em\u003E reporter Diane Sawyer. Two months later, she graced the cover of \u003Cem\u003EVanity Fair\u003C\/em\u003E magazine, revealing her new name and gender identity. Although it took decades for Jenner to come out, she has suddenly become highly visible as a transgender woman, putting a national spotlight on transgender people and issues. Yet as many observers have noted, Jenner\u2019s recent experiences are more the exception than the norm for the approximately 700,000 Americans who are transgender. A 2008 survey conducted by the National Center for Transgender Equality offers a grim picture of the lives of trans people in the United States.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\n \u003Cbr\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-title\u0022\u003EPervasive Discrimination against Transgender People\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/p\u003E\n \u003Cp\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003ETransgender people are individuals whose gender identity and expression do not match their sex assigned at birth. Many undergo a process of gender transition in which they make modifications to their names and bodies. In Western societies, most people assume there are only two sexes, female and male, and assign babies to one or the other at birth. Because their experiences challenge such deep-seated assumptions, the majority of transgender people face what is called \u201ctransphobic discrimination,\u201d which is indeed pervasive. Analyzing data from the 2008 survey, we found that 70% of transgender people in the United States have experienced transphobic discrimination at least once in their lives.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/p\u003E\n \u003Cul\u003E\n \u003Cli\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EMajor incidents of unfair treatment or verbal harassment are common. Roughly 35% of transgender Americans have been denied a job because of their identity, and 26% have had to keep their identity hidden in order to keep a job. Astonishingly, one-fifth report being denied equal treatment or even verbally harassed in a doctor\u2019s office.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\n \u0026nbsp;\n \u003C\/li\u003E\n \u003Cli\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EMany transgender people also face prejudice in day-to-day interactions. In the workplace, more than two-fifths have been harassed, had personal information inappropriately shared, or been intentionally labeled with the wrong pronoun; and many have suffered similar incidents in retail stores, hotels, restaurants, airports, and on public transportation.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/li\u003E\n \u003C\/ul\u003E\n \u003Cp\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EMajor incidents of discrimination and daily prejudice make it difficult for transgender people to support themselves and their families, address personal needs, and feel included and safe.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\n \u003Cbr\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-title\u0022\u003EVisible Status Leads to Discrimination and, in Turn, Health Problems\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\n \u003Cbr\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EIn our research, we assessed whether people more frequently understood to be transgender face more discrimination \u2013 and found that, indeed, 83% percent of those who report always being visibly transgender to others say they have experienced daily discrimination, compared to two-thirds of those who report never being \u201cread\u201d as transgender. Like other marginalized people, transgender people who face day-to-day prejudicial treatment as well as major discriminatory episodes suffer as a result. Discriminatory treatment causes personal distress and, if experienced frequently, can lead to severe mental and physical health problems.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/p\u003E\n \u003Cul\u003E\n \u003Cli\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EDiscrimination compromises health through physiological responses such as elevated blood pressure and suppressed immune functioning.\u003Cbr\u003E\n \u0026nbsp;\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/li\u003E\n \u003Cli\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EAttempts to cope with victimization can also be harmful \u2013 for example, we found that the more discriminatory treatment transgender people faced, the more likely they were to have attempted suicide or to have smoked cigarettes or abused drugs or alcohol. The most visibly non-gender-conforming people, who face the greatest discrimination, are at greatest risk for health problems.\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/li\u003E\n \u003C\/ul\u003E\n \u003Cp\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EHealth difficulties can be exacerbated by unfair or inappropriate medical treatment. A number of respondents in the 2008 survey reported verbal harassment and other kinds of unfair or disrespectful conduct by medical personnel such as paramedics and emergency technicians, citing incidents in doctors\u2019 offices, hospital or emergency rooms, and mental health clinics. In addition, many medical professionals are not fully prepared to address the needs of transgender people. Unfortunately, fears about discrimination or prejudiced treatment make transgender people less likely to seek and receive necessary medical care when health problems arise.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\n \u003Cbr\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-title\u0022\u003EWhat Can be Done?\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\n \u003Cbr\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003ETo reduce discrimination, some may think that transgender people should try to blend in with the general population. But we interpret the results of our study to show that society must become more accepting of diversity in gender identity and expression. That is the best route to ending pervasive and unfair harm to transgender people.\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/p\u003E\n \u003Cul\u003E\n \u003Cli\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EOutlawing discrimination is crucial. Activists have so far been unsuccessful in pressing for federal legislation, and fewer than half the states have legal bans on discrimination based on gender identity and expression. Effective laws must include routes to challenge discriminatory incidents and policies.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\n \u0026nbsp;\n \u003C\/li\u003E\n \u003Cli\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EBusinesses and organizations should restructure sex-segregated spaces such as restrooms and locker rooms (where transgender people are frequently subject to threats and physical violence), perhaps by offering gender-neutral facilities.\u003Cbr\u003E\n \u0026nbsp;\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/li\u003E\n \u003Cli\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003EChanging names and gender on official documents should be easy and inexpensive in order to help reduce incidents of transphobic discrimination where one\u2019s legal documents do not match their present gender identity and expression.\u003Cbr\u003E\n \u0026nbsp;\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/li\u003E\n \u003Cli\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-paragraph\u0022\u003ESteps should be taken to increase tolerance awareness in workplaces, schools, medical facilities, and public agencies. Training for doctors, nurses, police officers, judges, politicians, and teachers should be mandated so that such vital providers and officials are sensitive to transgender people\u2019s needs and can do a better job of serving them.\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/li\u003E\n \u003C\/ul\u003E\n \u003Cp\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022brief-footer-comments\u0022\u003ERead more in Lisa R. Miller and Eric Anthony Grollman, \u201c\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/onlinelibrary.wiley.com\/doi\/10.1111\/socf.12193\/epdf\u0022\u003EThe Social Costs of Gender Nonconformity for Transgender Adults: Implications for Discrimination and Health\u003C\/a\u003E.\u201d \u003Cem\u003ESociological Forum\u003C\/em\u003E 30, no 3 (2015): 809-831.\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/p\u003E\n \u003Cp\u003E\n \u003Cspan class=\u0022article-spotlight-author\u0022\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.scholarsstrategynetwork.org\/\u0022\u003Ewww.scholarsstrategynetwork.org \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp;\u003C\/a\u003E \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; \u0026nbsp; January 2016\u003C\/span\u003E\n \u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003C\/div\u003E \u003Cp\u003EThis article was originally published on \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.scholarsstrategynetwork.org\/\u0022\u003EScholars Strategy Network\u003C\/a\u003E. Read the \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.scholarsstrategynetwork.org\/brief\/discrimination-obstacle-wellbeing-transgender-americans\u0022\u003Eoriginal article\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n \u003Cimg height=\u00221\u0022 width=\u00221\u0022 typeof=\u0022foaf:Image\u0022 src=\u0022http:\/\/www.scholarsstrategynetwork.org\/stealourcontent\/track.gif?nid=35312\u0022 alt=\u0022\u0022 \/\u003E \u003C\/textarea\u003E\n\n \u003Cp\u003ECopy the above code and paste it into your website or CMS to republish.\u003C\/p\u003E\n \u003C\/div\u003E\n"}]